Benedict Spinoza Comprehensive Resource


This resource complies some of the best online resources available on Baruch Spinoza. Included are resources on intellectual life in Amsterdam during the 17th century, Spinoza’s personal life, his works, and guides to help cultivate better understanding of his notoriously cryptic writing style. Also available is a collection of famous criticisms of his work.

Life & Background

Benedict (Baruch) de Spinoza is a Dutch philosopher, historically known as one of the definitive rationalists of the 17th century. Some believe that his opposition to dualism and his bible criticism assisted in providing a foundation for the enlightenment period. Regarding his personal affairs, Spinoza led a quiet life working as a lens grinder. Also of note, Spinoza, who was of Portuguese and Jewish upbringing was condemned to a cherem, a equivalent to the Christian excommunication. He also never pursued philosophy as a vocation and denied opportunities to do so when they were presented to him.

  • Short Biography - A very short biography providing a neat portrayals of Spinoza’s life.
  • Chronology - Nice time line of Spinoza’s life and published works.
  • Spinoza's Home - (Dutch Resource) Museum site of Spinoza’s simple residence, contains images.
  • Spinoza's Grave - Some information on the man and images of his final resting place.
  • Spinoza's Cherem - Image and detailed explanation of Spinoza’s Cherem (excommunication).

Philosophical Background & Guides

  • Spinoza - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s article
  • Reading Spinoza - Great resource for those beginning philosophical study on Spinoza.

Complete Works

Reactions to Spinoza’s Work

  • Gottfried Wilhelm Liebnitz - General information on the philosopher and how his ideas figured into the important philosophical issues of the time, including the rationalism vs. empiricism debate.
  • Gilles Deleuze -A more contemporary philosopher influenced by Spinoza, a short biography on his life and thought.

Additional Resources