Issac Newton: A Biography



Sir Isaac Newton was born on 1642 in Wools Thorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire . He attended Cambridge University in 1661. In 1667, he became a fellow of Trinity College and two years later, he became the Lucasian professor of Mathematics. His prowess was significant in Science and Mathematics. His achievements among so many are seen in the records of planetary research, “The Principia Rules”, Binomial theorem, Optics, Newton ’s rings and Wave theory.

Planetary research

With an attempt to prove the motion of the earth in 1674 (by Hooke), Newton, opposed to Hooke’s centrifugal tendencies, proved his theory of an inverse square attraction and elliptical orbits.

Newton's view on gravity

Newton's inverse square relation

The Universal law of gravitation

Newtonian relationships

The moon's circular path

Newton and the planet orbits

Newton's laws and the planetary motion

The Principia Rules”

“The Principia” is one of Newton ’s major works of his life time. In this work, Newton demonstrated a scientific method that has a significant relevance to the world. The scientific methods are based on these four rules:

  1. Natural things have the capability of explaining their appearances.

  2. Natural effects have specific natural causes.

  3. Bodies are universal in nature.

  4. Facts gathered from a careful observation of a phenomenon can be accurate and true until another phenomenon contradicts its validity.

The Principia

The Principia: All about natural philosophy

Four rules of Scientific Reasoning from Principia Mathematica


Calculus was developed and used by Newton and the Scientific community to solve several mechanical and hydro dynamical problems. Differential calculus was formed around 1666.

Newton's work on Calculus

The history of Calculus

The development of Calculus and Newton's contributions

The Calculus to the life and times of Isaac Newton

Newton's invention of Calculus

Newton's method: Calculus

Why Calculus?

Binomial theorem

Around 1665, Newton established the binomial theorem. The binomial theorem is a subject that deals on the algebraic expansion of the powers of a binomial. The binomial theorem can be combined with De Moivre’s Formulas to form formulas for determining multi-angles.

Newton's work on the Binomial theorem

How Binomial theorem surfaced

The Binomial theorem

Proof of the Binomial theorem


In Optics, Newton was able to find out the composition of light. His finding was that white light was heterogeneous. By this, he meant that there were major colors, called primary colors, that combine to form white. Through several experiments, he was able to conclude that white light can be separated into its constituents by passing it through prisms. In his “crucial experiment”, he went further to prove that a particular color leaving the first prism cannot be further separated because the angle of refraction remained constant even after passing a second prism.

Optics by Newton

Optics: Newton's first work as a Lucasian professor

Newton's observation in Optics

Newton’s Rings

Newton ’s rings are an application in the lens-making industry. In the industry, mercury light is placed over the lens to check the number and uniformity of the rings with the lens. Newton ’s rings form when there is reflection of light between a spherical surface and an adjacent flat surface. The light waves form interference so that when observed with monochromatic light, it is seen as a continuous set of concentric dark rings at the center of the point of contact between the two bodies. These dark rings are caused by destructive interference. Light rings are caused by constructive interference and this can be seen when viewed through white light.

Newton's rings

What are Newton's rings

Formation of Newton's rings

All about Newton's rings

Newton's rings phenomena

Wave theory.

Newton ’s wave theory states categorically that all matter behave just like waves and particles.

Newton's theory of light

A brief history of wave theory

Wave-Particle duality

The wave theory of sound


Understanding the works of Isaac Newton is crucial in modern day science. This is because the basics of science must be understood to apply them. Newton has done a lot to give science and mathematics a solid foundation